Click the play button to hear the English and Halq’emeylem pronunciation of the title of this tab


Big Idea:

Before the arrival of the Europeans, Indigenous Peoples thrived on the territories (cultural areas) which they lived. They had established systems of survival, of education, of spirituality, of social structure and of trade with neighbouring Indigenous Peoples.

Focus Questions:

  • First Peoples have been here since time immemorial. What does this mean? What is a thriving culture? How did Indigenous culture thrive pre-contact?
  • How did the Stó:lō people interact with the land and with the river?
  • What role did spirituality play in the lives of the Stó:lō prior to the arrival of the Europeans?
  • How did the Stó:lō trade with neighbouring Indigenous communities? What were the benefits of this trade system?

Digital Resources:

Click Here or on the image below to learn about various aspects of Indigenous culture and practices prior to Contact.


9000 Years of History in the Land of the River People : The Stóːlō : From Time Immemorial “The program ‘From Time Immemorial’ is designed to provide students from primary to mid-intermediate grades with a basic introduction to Stóːlō culture and an understanding of First Nations history. …

(Visit Siwal Si’wes Library for print copies which are also available in many school libraries.)




Unit 1 Module 1 Who are the Sto:lo

Unit 1 Module 2 Oral Traditions

Unit 1 Module 3 TransportationTrade Routes

Unit 2 Module 1 Housing

Unit 2 Module 2 Social Structure

Unit 2 Module 3 Rites of Passage

Unit 3 Module 1 Cedar

Unit 3 Module 2 Fishing

Unit 3 Module 3 Potlatch

Unit 3 Module 4 Weaving

Click the following Bold hyperlink or on the image below to explore Canada’s First Peoples. This website provides text and pictures related to FNMI culture and history.  Great for student research.

Click the following Bold hyperlink or the image below to explore Aboriginal Perspectives: A Teacher’s Toolkit. “A new collection of electronic resources from the [Ontario] Ministry of Education to help elementary and secondary teachers bring Aboriginal perspectives into their classrooms.” Teaching Strategies and lesson plans are available on the ministry’s website.